Texas state government is divided into executive, legislative, and judicial branches under the Texas Constitution adopted in 1876.
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    Population statistics for Texas MSAs
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    Index crime statistics for 2019 and 2018.
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    Below are listed the major military installations in Texas in 2018. Data are taken from the U.S. Department of Defense Base Structure Report 2017 and other sources. “Civilian” refers to Department of Defense and contractor personnel.
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    Texas is divided into four federal judicial districts, each of which is comprised of several divisions. Appeal from all Texas federal courts is to the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans.
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  • State Government

    Texas state government is divided into executive, legislative, and judicial branches under the Texas Constitution adopted in 1876.
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    The 84th Texas Legislature convened for its 140-day regular session in January 2015 with one of the most conservative and Republican-dominated governments in the country. Legislators cut taxes, beefed up border security, and passed more permissive gun laws. Actions that shaped the future of the state.

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Texas has 254 counties, a number which has not changed since 1931 when Loving County was organized. Loving County had a population of 82 according to the 2010 U.S. census, compared with 164 in 1970 and a peak of 285 in 1940. It is the least-populous county in Texas. In contrast, Harris County has the most residents, with a 2010 population of 4,092,459.

Counties range in area from Rockwall's 148.7 square miles to the 6,192.3 square miles in Brewster, which is equal to the combined area of the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island.

The Texas Constitution makes a county a legal subdivision of the state. Each county has a commissioners court. It consists of four commissioners, each elected from a commissioner's precinct, and a county judge elected from the entire county. In smaller counties, the county judge retains judicial responsibilities in probate and insanity cases.

There are more than 1,200 incorporated Texas municipalities ranging in size from 17 residents in Los Ybanez to Houston's 2,338,187, according to the 2019 population estimates of the Texas Demographic Center. More than 80 percent of the state's population lives in counties meeting the U.S. Census Bureau definition of metropolitan areas.

Texas had 419 cities with more than 5,000 population, according to the state data center. Under law, these cities may adopt their own charters (called home rule) by a majority vote. Cities of less than 5,000 may be chartered only under the general law.


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