Texas state government is divided into executive, legislative, and judicial branches under the Texas Constitution adopted in 1876.
  • 86th Legislature Increases School Funding, Sets Limits on Local Property Tax Raises

    Texas legislators grappled successfully, and at last, with two major issues that have hounded state government for years — school finance reform and property tax relief — in the 86th legislative session that ran from Jan. 8 to May 27, 2019.
  • 88th Legislature Report: Impeachment Trial

    Atty. Gen. Ken Paxton is the first Texas statewide elected official in 106 years to face an impeachment trial and the first to beat the charges.
  • 88th Legislature: Tax Cuts, Border Security, and Impeachment

    The Texas Legislature rarely meets without generating some drama, and 2023 gatherings were no exception. Yet, despite intrigue aplenty in the 88th biennial session and subsequent special sessions, lawmakers were able to pass the largest two-year budget ever and, in a second special session, a record-breaking property tax cut.
  • 87th Legislature: Winter Storm Uri and a 6-Week Abortion Ban

    In short, the 87th session of the Texas Legislature was unlike any other, with the regular session addressing unparalleled challenges, and the aftermath casting Texas into the national spotlight.
  • Local Option Alcohol

    As of August 2021, there were 59 completely wet counties in Texas and 5 completely dry counties.
  • Population

    Population statistics for Texas MSAs
  • Law Enforcement and Crime Reporting

    Index crime statistics for 2019 and 2018.
  • Major Military Installations

    Below are listed the major military installations in Texas in 2018. Data are taken from the U.S. Department of Defense Base Structure Report 2017 and other sources. “Civilian” refers to Department of Defense and contractor personnel.
  • Federal Courts in Texas

    Texas is divided into four federal judicial districts, each of which is comprised of several divisions. Appeal from all Texas federal courts is to the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans.
  • The Money Factory in Fort Worth

    The story of the Dallas Federal Reserve...
  • State Government

    Texas state government is divided into executive, legislative, and judicial branches under the Texas Constitution adopted in 1876.
  • 83rd Legislature: Record Budget, Abortion Limits

    A prosperous economy made passage of a record $196.9 billion biennial budget relatively easy in the 83rd Legislature but the congenial and workmanlike regular session was overshadowed by a battle royal over abortion in special sessions.
  • 85th Legislature: Record Budget, Sanctuary Ban

    The Texas 2017, 85th Legislative session was astoundingly contentious. It advanced the state’s conservative push despite a rift in the ruling Republican Party.
  • 84th Legislature: Tax Cuts, Gun Rights

    The 84th Texas Legislature convened for its 140-day regular session in January 2015 with one of the most conservative and Republican-dominated governments in the country. Legislators cut taxes, beefed up border security, and passed more permissive gun laws. Actions that shaped the future of the state.

It doesn't get any more Texan than this…

Purchase your copy of the brand new Texas Almanac today!

Buy now »


Texas has 254 counties, a number which has not changed since 1931 when Loving County was organized. Loving County had a population of 82 according to the 2010 U.S. census, compared with 164 in 1970 and a peak of 285 in 1940. It is the least-populous county in Texas. In contrast, Harris County has the most residents, with a 2010 population of 4,092,459.

Counties range in area from Rockwall's 148.7 square miles to the 6,192.3 square miles in Brewster, which is equal to the combined area of the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island.

The Texas Constitution makes a county a legal subdivision of the state. Each county has a commissioners court. It consists of four commissioners, each elected from a commissioner's precinct, and a county judge elected from the entire county. In smaller counties, the county judge retains judicial responsibilities in probate and insanity cases.

There are more than 1,200 incorporated Texas municipalities ranging in size from 17 residents in Los Ybanez to Houston's 2,338,187, according to the 2019 population estimates of the Texas Demographic Center. More than 80 percent of the state's population lives in counties meeting the U.S. Census Bureau definition of metropolitan areas.

Texas had 419 cities with more than 5,000 population, according to the state data center. Under law, these cities may adopt their own charters (called home rule) by a majority vote. Cities of less than 5,000 may be chartered only under the general law.


Proud to call Texas home?

Put your name on the town, county, or lake of your choice.

Search Places »