Buffalo Springs is near the Oklahoma state line in north central Dallam County (at 36°29' N, 102°47' W). The springs originate from numerous openings in sandstone and in the past were a site for Indian campgrounds and also a favorite watering place for herds of buffalo, mustangs, and other animals. In 1878 the XIT Ranch's first division headquarters was established at the springs. The spring flow declined from 142 liters per second in 1907 to 6.5 in 1977 because of irrigation pumping.
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