Bovina is on U.S. Highway 60 between two forks of Running Water Draw in western Parmer County. Originally the community was the Hay Hook Line Camp of the XIT Ranch, and the ranch headquarters was one of the county's earliest buildings. When the Pecos and Northern Texas Railway was built through the ranch in 1898 a switch was placed at the site to be used by cowboys to unload cottonseed shipped in as feed. Some of this feed was invariably spilled along the tracks, causing XIT cattle to gather at the unfenced right-of-way. Often they lay down, compelling railroad workers to get off their trains and prod them off the tracks. As a result the site was labeled Bull Town, a name replaced by the more elegant Bovina when the post office was established on January 31, 1899. Bovina soon experienced a boom and for a time shipped a larger volume of cattle than any other shipping point in the world.
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