Jefferson County

Jefferson County, Texas

Jefferson County, Texas

The Jefferson County Courthouse is located in Beaumont, the county seat. Photograph by Regrothenberger.

Jefferson County, on Interstate Highway 10 in the Coastal Plain or Gulf Prairie region of extreme southeastern Texas, is bounded by Orange County on the northeast, by Hardin County on the north, by Liberty and Chambers counties on the west, and by the Gulf of Mexico on the south. To the east the county line is formed by the Neches River, Sabine Lake, and Sabine Pass, and to the north by Pine Island Bayou. A series of lakes extends across the southern part of the county, and beaches overlook the Gulf. The Port Arthur ship canal, on the west shore of Sabine Lake, connects with the Neches and Sabine rivers to provide deepwater ports at Beaumont, Port Arthur, Nederland, and Port Neches. Deepwater transportation and petrochemical industries are among the county's economic mainstays. Beef cattle and rice yield major farm income, and the majority of wage earners are employed in the petrochemical, shipbuilding, and rubber industries. The county comprises 937 square miles, mainly of grassy plains, though a dense forest belt crosses the northwest part. The southern third of the county consists of marshy saltgrass terrain good for cattle raising, the middle third is coastal prairie used for grazing and rice culture, and the northern third is heavily forested with hardwoods and southern yellow pine. The terrain is low and flat, with altitudes rising from sea level to about fifty feet. Beach sands and ocean sediments make up soils along the coast. The northern border is surfaced by light-colored, loamy soils over deep, reddish clayey or loamy subsoils with hardened calcium deposits, and the remainder of the county has light to dark loamy surfaces over clayey subsoils or gray to black, clayey soils. Geologically, the county is noted for its Beaumont Clay formation and the Spindletop and Big Hill salt domes, which contain sulfur and petroleum. The mean annual temperature is 69° F, and the average annual rainfall is fifty-three inches. The subtropical, humid climate features warm, moist summers tempered by Gulf breezes. The growing season averages 225 days a year. Vegetation includes pine, white oak, red oak, pin oak, ash, beech, magnolia, gum, cypress, bunchgrasses, marsh millet, seashore saltgrass and cordgrasses. Between 1 and 10 percent of the land is considered prime farmland. Among the principal streams are Taylor's, Hillebrandt, and Pine Island bayous. Lake B. A. Steinhagen and Sam Rayburn Reservoir provide water for municipal use and industry, and the bayous are used for irrigation by rice growers. Natural resources in the county include ceramic clays, industrial sand, oil and gas, sulfur, and pine and hardwood. Three railroads — the Kansas City Southern, the Southwest Electric Power Company, and the Union Pacific — serve the county, and the Neches River provides water transport. The county seat, Beaumont, an important shipping point, petrochemical producer, and hospital and nursing home center, is located on the Neches River at the county's approximate midpoint (at 30°05' N, 94°06' W). Incorporated towns include Beaumont, Bevil Oaks, China, Groves, Nederland, Nome, Port Arthur, and Port Neches. Beaumont, Port Arthur, and neighboring Orange, cities of the "Golden Triangle," have been the principal cities of the Sabine area and major manufacturing centers.

Adapted from the official Handbook of Texas, a state encyclopedia developed by the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA). It is an authoritative source of trusted historical records.

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County Map of Texas

Jefferson County

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  • Jefferson County

Currently Exists

Yes

Place type

Jefferson County is classified as a County

Altitude Range

0 ft – 49 ft

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Noteworthy Place Type
Amelbulk Town
Amelia Town
Atreco Town
Aurora Town
Beaumont Town
Beauxart Gardens Town
Bevil Oaks Town
Big Hill Town
Blanchette Town
Boyt Town
Brooks Town
Broussard's Store Town
Bunch Town
Buttfield Town
Carter's Woods Town
Central Gardens Town
Chaison Town
Cheek Town
China Town
Congreve Station Town
Corbinville Town
Cornstreet Town
Delphine Town
Dowling Town
El Vista Town
Elizabeth Town
Elwood Town
Evora Town
Fannett Town
Frankston Town
French Mills Town
Funston Town
Galloway Town
Garner's Town
Gilburg Town
Gladys Town
Grenada Town
Griffing Park Town
Grigsby's Bluff Town
Groves Town
Guffey Town
Hamshire Town
Hayes Town
Hebert Town
Hebron Town
Helbig Town
Higgins Town
Hillebrandt Town
J.D. Murphree Wildlife Management Area Impoundments Lake
Keith Lake Town
LaBelle Town
Lakeview Town
Landrum Town
Lower Taylor Bayou Town
Lucas Town
Magpetco Town
McFadden Town
Meeker Town
Morey Town
Mossy Creek Town
Mount Evergreen Town
Nashland Town
Neches River Settlement Town
Nederland Town
New Bethel Town
Nome Town
North China Town
Obal Town
Odelia Town
Paul Wheeler Town
Pear Ridge Town
Pecan Grove Town
Petry Woods Town
Pine Island Town
Pine Island Town
Port Acres Town
Port Arthur Town
Port Neches Town
Rosedale Town
Sabine Town
Sabine Pass Town
Smiths Bluff Town
Sour Lake Town
Sparks Town
Spindletop Town
Steeltown Town
Stonetown Town
Sun Town
Taylor Bayou Town
Taylor Landing Town
Tevis Bluff Town
Tiger Point Town
Turnertown Town
Viterbo Town
Voth Town
Walden Town
West Oakland Town
West Port Arthur Town
Westbury Town
Whiskey Ford Town
Williams Town
Winshire Town
Wolf Point Town
Woodruff Town
Zummo Town

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Jefferson County by the Numbers

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Population Counts

Jefferson County
Pop. Year Source
251,565 2019 United States Census Bureau

Civilian Labor Counts

Jefferson County
People Year Source
104,312 2019 Texas Workforce Commission

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Per Capita Income (USD) Year Source
$44,065 2019 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis

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Property Values

Jefferson County
USD ($) Year Source
30,074,990,260 2019 State Property Tax Board

Retail Sales

Jefferson County
USD ($) Year Source
4,211,278,251 2019 State Comptroller of Public Accounts

Wages

Jefferson County
USD ($) Year Source
1,861,770,471 2019 Texas Workforce Commission

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Unemployment Percentage Year Source
13.6 2019 Texas Workforce Commission

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Rainfall (inches) Year Source
60.4 2019 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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Min. (January Average, °F) Max. (July Average, °F) Year Source
41.7 92.0 2019 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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Land Area

Jefferson County
Area (square miles) Year Source
876.3 2019 United States Census Bureau

Total Area

Jefferson County
Area (square miles) Year Source
1,112.7 2019 United States Census Bureau