Lockhart, Texas

Lockhart, Texas

Downtown Lockhart, Texas. Photograph by Aleksomber.

Lockhart, county seat of Caldwell County, is at the intersection of U. S. Highway 183 and State Highway 142, thirty miles southeast of Austin. It was named for Byrd Lockhart, who in 1831 received the land that later became the Lockhart townsite as partial payment for his surveying work for the Mexican government. During the 1830s settlement in the area was limited by the threat of Indian raids, but after the battle of Plum Creek in 1840, more settlers began to arrive. By the mid-1840s, several families had made their home near Lockhart Springs, and when Caldwell County was established in 1848, the new town of Lockhart became the county seat. The Plum Creek post office, which had served the area since the previous year, was transferred to Lockhart. Lockhart was incorporated in 1852 with a mayor-council government. By that time the community was well established: Isabel Stewart began publishing a weekly newspaper in 1849 or 1850; the Lockhart Academy opened in 1850; a Masonic lodge, built in 1850, provided meeting space for both school and church functions; and by 1855 at least five different churches had been organized. An 1858 census of incorporated towns listed Lockhart with 423 residents. In the late 1860s Lockhart became a starting point for the Chisholm Trail, and, as such, developed as a regional trading center in the early 1870s. Beginning in 1874, however, the arrival of the Galveston, Harrisburg and San Antonio Railway in the southern part of the county and the subsequent establishment of Luling cut into business activity at Lockhart for several years. Lockhart continued to grow, but did not recover its dominance of the county economy until after 1887, when the completion of the Lockhart-San Marcos section of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas line increased access to outside markets. By 1890 Lockhart had electricity, a waterworks, streetcars, four schools, seven churches, and a national bank to serve its 1,233 residents. Aiding its economic growth was the establishment of two more rail lines: in 1889 the San Antonio and Aransas Pass connected Lockhart and Shiner (by way of Luling), and in 1892 the Missouri, Kansas and Texas extended its track from Lockhart to Smithville. In the 1890s and early 1900s Lockhart became an important regional center for processing cotton, with a cottonseed oil mill opening in 1893 and a compress in 1901. The turn of the century also brought the establishment of the Dr. Eugene Clark Library (still extant and said to be the state's oldest continuously operating city library) and Kreuz's Market (still selling barbecue in the early 1990s). The census of 1900 showed that the city population had nearly doubled in ten years, rising to 2,306.

Adapted from the official Handbook of Texas, a state encyclopedia developed by the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA). It is an authoritative source of trusted historical records.

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Place type

Lockhart is classified as a Town

Associated Names

  • (Plum Creek 1)


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Lockhart by the Numbers

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Population Counts

Pop. Year Source
14,379 2020 United States Census Bureau
13,889 2019 Texas Demographic Center
12,698 2010 United States Census Bureau
11,615 2000 United States Census Bureau
9,205 1990 United States Census Bureau
7,953 1980 United States Census Bureau
6,489 1970 United States Census Bureau
6,084 1960 United States Census Bureau
5,573 1950 United States Census Bureau
5,018 1940 United States Census Bureau
4,367 1930 United States Census Bureau
3,731 1920 United States Census Bureau
2,945 1910 United States Census Bureau
2,306 1900 United States Census Bureau
1,233 1890 United States Census Bureau
718 1880 United States Census Bureau
500 1870 United States Census Bureau
423 1850 United States Census Bureau