Coleman County (J-12) is located in west central Texas. Coleman, the county seat and largest town, is sixty miles southeast of Abilene. The center point of the county is 31°45' north latitude and 99°25' west longitude. The county is bordered on the south by the Colorado River, on the north by Taylor and Callahan counties, on the west by Runnels County, and on the east by Brown County. Coleman County encompasses 1,280 square miles. It lies in the transitional area between the Edwards Plateau and the Rolling Plains and has some characteristics of each. Rolling hills dominated by mesquite brush and oaks predominate in the county. The county has an elevation range of 1,500 to 2,250 feet. The most significant topographic features include Jim Ned Peak (2,140'), Chandlers Peak (2,173'), and Robinsons Peak in the northern half of the county; and the Santa Anna Mountains (2,000'), Speck Mountain (1,520') and Parks Mountain in the southern half. The flora and fauna of Coleman County are typical of west central Texas; species are mostly western, but some eastern plants and animals can be found. The flora consists of three natural types-mesquite-grassland savanna, upland scrub, and bottomland woodland along the creeks and the Colorado River. The fauna of the county includes such reptiles as yellow mud turtles, Texas map turtles, Western cottonmouth snakes, hognose snakes, Western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, coachwhips, horned toads, and the eastern tree lizard; birds such as turkeys, screech owls, wood ducks, turkey vultures, and red-tailed hawks; and such mammals as white-tailed deer, black-tailed jackrabbits, opossums, and ringtails. The natural resources of the county include oil, gas, rock, and clay. The northern half of the county is drained by Jim Ned and Hords creeks, which meet and flow into Pecan Bayou in neighboring Brown County. Both creeks have been dammed and have reservoirs on them, Coleman Lake on Jim Ned Creek and Hords Creek Lake on Hords creek. The southern half of the county is drained by the Colorado River. Grape and Bull creeks are the two major tributaries of the Colorado within the county. Coleman County has an average growing season of 235 days. It receives 26.82 inches of rainfall on the average annually. Temperatures range from a mean January low of 34° F to a mean July high of 96°.
Adapted from the official Handbook of Texas, a state encyclopedia developed by the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA). It is an authoritative source of trusted historical records.